|Flag Name(s)||[Flag Of Ethiopia]|
|Color and Design|
A horizontal tricolour of green, yellow and red with the National Emblem superimposed at the center.
|Meaning & Symbolism||The red represents blood spilled in defence of Ethiopia. Yellow represents peace and harmony between Ethiopia's various ethnic and religious groups. And green is said to symbolise hope, or the land and its fertility.|
|Description and Brief History|
The national flag of Ethiopia is a green, gold, and red tricolour with the National Emblem, a golden pentagram on a blue disc, superimposed at the center. While the colors green, gold, and red in combination held symbolic importance since at least the early 17th century, the modern tricolour was first adopted on 11 October 1897, and the present flag on 31 October 1996.
The Green, Yellow and Red were used for the flag of the Ethiopian Empire in 1914. On 11 October 1897, a year after Ethiopia decisively defeated the Italian colonization at the Battle of Adwa, emperor Menelik II ordered the three pennants combined in a rectangular tricolour from top to bottom of red, yellow, and green with the first letter of his own name (the Amharic letter "ም") on the central stripe. The letter of Menelik's name was removed from the flag after his death in 1913. For unknown reasons, in 1914, the colour order was flipped- with green on top, red on the bottom, and the yellow remaining in place. The flag's tri-colour scheme has existed since the early 19th century, and the colours red, yellow, and green have carried special importance since at least the early 17th century. To commemorate its adoption in 1897, Ethiopia celebrates Flag Day on the first Monday of the month of Tikimt (September–October).
The royal flag often featured the emblem of a Lion of Judah, a crowned lion carrying a cross centered in the banner's yellow midsection. The flag is understood to be a link between the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, the peoples, and the nation that was united. The processional cross carried by the lion was the former flag or symbol of Ethiopia, and has likewise been in use since at least the early 17th century. Whilst red is currently featured at the bottom of the horizontal tricolour, this was reversed until the mid-19th century. The emblem was added in 1996.
Upon gaining independence from colonial rule, several newly established countries in Africa adopted these three colours in homage to Ethiopia's resistance against foreign occupation. When adopted by Pan-Africanist polities and organisations for their activities, the colours are often referred to as the Pan-African colours.
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