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Official Languages by Country and Territory

An official language is a language given a special status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction. Typically the term "official language" does not refer to the language used by a people or country, BUT BY ITS GOVERNMENT (e.g. judiciary, legislature, or administration). Official language is also used for communication between people or to be used in law, media, medicine, or be used in a situation where there are speakers of different languages in the same area or country.

Below is a complete list of the official languages. It includes all other languages thats widely spoken in the country and dependent territories of the world. Some languages may have status as a national language, regional language, or minority language.

Country Language
AfghanistanAfghan Persian or Dari (official) 78% (Dari functions as the lingua franca), Pashto (official) 50%, Uzbek 10%, English 5%, Turkmen 2%, Urdu 2%, Pashayi 1%, Nuristani 1%, Arabic 1%, Balochi 1%, other <1% (2017 est.)
Aland IslandsSwedish (official). Swedish 86.5%, Finnish 4.7%, others 8.8%.
AlbaniaAlbanian 98.8% (official - derived from Tosk dialect), Greek 0.5%, other 0.6% (including Macedonian, Romani, Vlach, Turkish, Italian, and Serbo-Croatian), unspecified 0.1% (2011 est.)
AlgeriaArabic (official), French (lingua franca), Berber or Tamazight (official); dialects include Kabyle Berber (Taqbaylit), Shawiya Berber (Tacawit), Mzab Berber, Tuareg Berber (Tamahaq)
American SamoaSamoan 88.6% (closely related to Hawaiian and other Polynesian languages), English 3.9%, Tongan 2.7%, other Pacific islander 3%, other 1.8% (2010 est.)
AndorraCatalan (official), French, Castilian, Portuguese
AngolaPortuguese 71.2% (official), Umbundu 23%, Kikongo 8.2%, Kimbundu 7.8%, Chokwe 6.5%, Nhaneca 3.4%, Nganguela 3.1%, Fiote 2.4%, Kwanhama 2.3%, Muhumbi 2.1%, Luvale 1%, other 3.6% (2014 est.)
AnguillaEnglish (official)
Antigua and BarbudaEnglish (official), Antiguan creole
ArgentinaSpanish (official), Italian, English, German, French, indigenous (Mapudungun, Quechua)
ArmeniaArmenian (official) 97.9%, Kurdish (spoken by Yezidi minority) 1%, other 1% (2011 est.)
ArubaPapiamento (official) (a creole language that is a mixture of Portuguese, Spanish, Dutch, English, and, to a lesser extent, French, as well as elements of African languages and the language of the Arawak) 69.4%, Spanish 13.7%, English (widely spoken) 7.1%, Dutch (official) 6.1%, Chinese 1.5%, other 1.7%, unspecified 0.4% (2010 est.)
AustraliaEnglish 72.7%, Mandarin 2.5%, Arabic 1.4%, Cantonese 1.2%, Vietnamese 1.2%, Italian 1.2%, Greek 1%, other 14.8%, unspecified 6.5% (2016 est.)
AustriaGerman (official nationwide) 88.6%, Turkish 2.3%, Serbian 2.2%, Croatian (official in Burgenland) 1.6%, other (includes Slovene, official in southern Carinthia, and Hungarian, official in Burgenland) 5.3% (2001 est.)
AzerbaijanAzerbaijani (Azeri) (official) 92.5%, Russian 1.4%, Armenian 1.4%, other 4.7% (2009 est.)
BahamasEnglish (official), Creole (among Haitian immigrants)
BahrainArabic (official), English, Farsi, Urdu
BangladeshBangla 98.8% (official, also known as Bengali), other 1.2% (2011 est.)
BarbadosEnglish (official), Bajan (English-based creole language, widely spoken in informal settings)
BelarusRussian (official) 70.2%, Belarusian (official) 23.4%, other 3.1% (includes small Polish- and Ukrainian-speaking minorities), unspecified 3.3% (2009 est.)
BelgiumDutch (official) 60%, French (official) 40%, German (official) less than 1%
BelizeEnglish 62.9% (official), Spanish 56.6%, Creole 44.6%, Maya 10.5%, German 3.2%, Garifuna 2.9%, other 1.8%, unknown 0.3%, none 0.2% (cannot speak) (2010 est.)
BeninFrench (official), Fon and Yoruba (most common vernaculars in south), tribal languages (at least six major ones in north)
BermudaEnglish (official), Portuguese
BhutanSharchopkha 28%, Dzongkha (official) 24%, Lhotshamkha 22%, other 26% (includes foreign languages) (2005 est.)
BoliviaSpanish (official) 60.7%, Quechua (official) 21.2%, Aymara (official) 14.6%, Guarani (official) 0.6%, other native languages 0.4%, foreign languages 2.4%, none 0.1% (2001 est.)
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaDutch (official), English (Saba, St. Eustatius), Papiamentu (Bonaire)
Bosnia and HerzegovinaBosnian (official) 52.9%, Serbian (official) 30.8%, Croatian (official) 14.6%, other 1.6%, no answer 0.2% (2013 est.)
BotswanaSetswana 77.3%, Sekalanga 7.4%, Shekgalagadi 3.4%, English (official) 2.8%, Zezuru/Shona 2%, Sesarwa 1.7%, Sembukushu 1.6%, Ndebele 1%, other 2.8% (2011 est.)
Bouvet Islandn/a
BrazilPortuguese (official and most widely spoken language)
British Indian Ocean TerritoryEnglish (official)
British Virgin IslandsEnglish (official)
Brunei DarussalamMalay (Bahasa Melayu) (official), English, Chinese dialects
BulgariaBulgarian (official) 76.8%, Turkish 8.2%, Romani 3.8%, other 0.7%, unspecified 10.5% (2011 est.)
Burkina FasoFrench (official), native African languages belonging to Sudanic family spoken by 90% of the population
BurundiKirundi only 29.7% (official); French only .3% (official); Swahili only .2%; English only .1% (official); Kirundi and French 8.4%; Kirundi, French, and English 2.4%, other language combinations 2%, unspecified 56.9% (2008 est.)
CambodiaKhmer (official) 96.3%, other 3.7% (2008 est.)
Cameroon24 major African language groups, English (official), French (official)
CanadaEnglish (official) 58.7%, French (official) 22%, Punjabi 1.4%, Italian 1.3%, Spanish 1.3%, German 1.3%, Cantonese 1.2%, Tagalog 1.2%, Arabic 1.1%, other 10.5% (2011 est.)
Cape VerdePortuguese (official), Krioulo (a Portuguese-based Creole language with two main dialects spoken in Cabo Verde and in the Cabo Verdean diaspora worldwide)
Cayman IslandsEnglish (official) 90.9%, Spanish 4%, Filipino 3.3%, other 1.7%, unspecified 0.1% (2010 est.)
Central African RepublicFrench (official), Sangho (lingua franca and national language), tribal languages
ChadFrench (official), Arabic (official), Sara (in south), more than 120 different languages and dialects
ChileSpanish 99.5% (official), English 10.2%, indigenous 1% (includes Mapudungun, Aymara, Quechua, Rapa Nui), other 2.3%, unspecified 0.2% (2012 est.)
ChinaStandard Chinese or Mandarin (official; Putonghua, based on the Beijing dialect), Yue (Cantonese), Wu (Shanghainese), Minbei (Fuzhou), Minnan (Hokkien-Taiwanese), Xiang, Gan, Hakka dialects, minority languages (see Ethnic groups entry)
Christmas IslandEnglish (official) 27.6%, Mandarin 17.2%, Malay 17.1%, Cantonese 3.9%, Min Nan 1.6%, Tagalog 1%, other 4.5%, unspecified 27.1% (2016 est.)
Cocos IslandsMalay (Cocos dialect) 68.8%, English 22.3%, unspecified 8.9% (2016 est.)
ColombiaSpanish (official)
ComorosArabic (official), French (official), Shikomoro (official; a blend of Swahili and Arabic) (Comorian)
Congo (the Democratic Republic)French (official), Lingala (a lingua franca trade language), Kingwana (a dialect of Kiswahili or Swahili), Kikongo, Tshiluba
Congo (the Republic)French (official), French Lingala and Monokutuba (lingua franca trade languages), many local languages and dialects (of which Kikongo is the most widespread)
Cook IslandsEnglish (official) 86.4%, Cook Islands Maori (Rarotongan) (official) 76.2%, other 8.3% (2011 est.)
Costa RicaSpanish (official), English
CroatiaCroatian (official) 95.6%, Serbian 1.2%, other 3% (including Hungarian, Czech, Slovak, and Albanian), unspecified 0.2% (2011 est.)
CubaSpanish (official)
CuracaoPapiamento (official) (a creole language that is a mixture of Portuguese, Spanish, Dutch, English, and, to a lesser extent, French, as well as elements of African languages and the language of the Arawak) 79.9%, Dutch (official) 8.8%, Spanish 5.6%, English (official) 3.1%, other 2.9%, unspecified .3% (2001 census)
CyprusGreek (official) 80.9%, Turkish (official) 0.2%, English 4.1%, Romanian 2.9%, Russian 2.5%, Bulgarian 2.2%, Arabic 1.2%, Filipino 1.1%, other 4.3%, unspecified 0.6% (2011 est.)
Czech RepublicCzech (official) 95.4%, Slovak 1.6%, other 3% (2011 est.)
DenmarkDanish, Faroese, Greenlandic (an Inuit dialect), German (small minority)
DjiboutiFrench (official), Arabic (official), Somali, Afar
DominicaEnglish (official), French patois
Dominican RepublicSpanish (official)
East Timor (Timor Leste)Tetun Prasa 30.6%, Mambai 16.6%, Makasai 10.5%, Tetun Terik 6.1%, Baikenu 5.9%, Kemak 5.8%, Bunak 5.5%, Tokodede 4%, Fataluku 3.5%, Waima'a 1.8%, Galoli 1.4%, Naueti 1.4%, Idate 1.2%, Midiki 1.2%, other 4.5%
EcuadorSpanish (Castilian) 93% (official), Quechua 4.1%, other indigenous 0.7%, foreign 2.2% (2010 est.)
EgyptArabic (official), English, and French widely understood by educated classes
El SalvadorSpanish (official), Nawat (among some Amerindians)
Equatorial GuineaSpanish (official) 67.6%, other (includes Fang, Bubi, Portuguese (official), French (official), Portuguese-based Creoles spoken in Ano Bom) 32.4% (1994 census)
EritreaTigrinya (official), Arabic (official), English (official), Tigre, Kunama, Afar, other Cushitic languages
EstoniaEstonian (official) 68.5%, Russian 29.6%, Ukrainian 0.6%, other 1.2%, unspecified 0.1% (2011 est.)
EswatiniEnglish (official, used for government business), siSwati (official)
EthiopiaOromo (official working language in the State of Oromiya) 33.8%, Amharic (official national language) 29.3%, Somali (official working language of the State of Sumale) 6.2%, Tigrigna (Tigrinya) (official working language of the State of Tigray) 5.9%, Sidamo 4%, Wolaytta 2.2%, Gurage 2%, Afar (official working language of the State of Afar) 1.7%, Hadiyya 1.7%, Gamo 1.5%, Gedeo 1.3%, Opuuo 1.2%, Kafa 1.1%, other 8.1%, English (major foreign language taught in schools), Arabic (2007 est.)
Falkland IslandsEnglish 89%, Spanish 7.7%, other 3.3% (2006 est.)
Faroe IslandsFaroese 93.8% (derived from Old Norse), Danish 3.2%, other 3% (2011 est.)
FijiEnglish (official), Fijian (official), Hindustani
FinlandFinnish (official) 87.6%, Swedish (official) 5.2%, Russian 1.4%, other 5.8% (2018 est.)
FranceFrench (official) 100%, declining regional dialects and languages (Provencal, Breton, Alsatian, Corsican, Catalan, Basque, Flemish, Occitan, Picard)
French GuianaFrench (official), French Guianese Creole
French PolynesiaFrench (official) 70%, Polynesian (official) 28.2%, other 1.8% (2012 est.)
French Southern TerritoriesFrench (official)
GabonFrench (official), Fang, Myene, Nzebi, Bapounou/Eschira, Bandjabi
GambiaEnglish (official), Mandinka, Wolof, Fula, other indigenous vernaculars
GeorgiaGeorgian (official) 87.6%, Azeri 6.2%, Armenian 3.9%, Russian 1.2%, other 1% (2014 est.)
GermanyGerman (official)
GhanaAsante 16%, Ewe 14%, Fante 11.6%, Boron (Brong) 4.9%, Dagomba 4.4%, Dangme 4.2%, Dagarte (Dagaba) 3.9%, Kokomba 3.5%, Akyem 3.2%, Ga 3.1%, other 31.2% (2010 est.)
GibraltarEnglish (used in schools and for official purposes), Spanish, Italian, Portuguese
GreeceGreek (official) 99%, other (includes English and French) 1%
GreenlandGreenlandic (West Greenlandic or Kalaallisut is the official language), Danish, English
GrenadaEnglish (official), French patois
Guadeloupe French (official), Antillean Creole
GuamEnglish 43.6%, Filipino 21.2%, Chamorro 17.8%, other Pacific island languages 10%, Asian languages 6.3%, other 1.1% (2010 est.)
GuatemalaSpanish (official) 69.9%, Maya languages 29.7% (Q'eqchi' 8.3%, K'iche 7.8%, Mam 4.4%, Kaqchikel 3%, Q'anjob'al 1.2%, Poqomchi' 1%, other 4%), other 0.4% (includes Xinca and Garifuna) (2018 est.)
GuernseyEnglish, French, Norman-French dialect spoken in country districts
GuineaFrench (official), Pular, Maninka, Susu, other native languages
Guinea BissauPortuguese-based Creole, Portuguese (official; largely used as a second or third language), Pular (a Fula language), Mandingo
GuyanaEnglish (official), Guyanese Creole, Amerindian languages (including Caribbean and Arawak languages), Indian languages (including Caribbean Hindustani, a dialect of Hindi), Chinese (2014 est.)
HaitiFrench (official), Creole (official)
Heard Island and McDonald Islandsn/a
HondurasSpanish (official), Amerindian dialects
Hong KongCantonese (official) 88.9%, English (official) 4.3%, Mandarin (official) 1.9%, other Chinese dialects 3.1%, other 1.9% (2016 est.)
HungaryHungarian (official) 99.6%, English 16%, German 11.2%, Russian 1.6%, Romanian 1.3%, French 1.2%, other 4.2% (2011 est.)
IcelandIcelandic, English, Nordic languages, German
IndiaHindi 43.6%, Bengali 8%, Marathi 6.9%, Telugu 6.7%, Tamil 5.7%, Gujarati 4.6%, Urdu 4.2%, Kannada 3.6%, Odia 3.1%, Malayalam 2.9%, Punjabi 2.7%, Assamese 1.3%, Maithili 1.1%, other 5.6% (2011 est.)
IndonesiaBahasa Indonesia (official, modified form of Malay), English, Dutch, local dialects (of which the most widely spoken is Javanese)
IranPersian Farsi (official), Azeri and other Turkic dialects, Kurdish, Gilaki and Mazandarani, Luri, Balochi, Arabic
IraqArabic (official), Kurdish (official), Turkmen (a Turkish dialect), Syriac (Neo-Aramaic), and Armenian are official in areas where native speakers of these languages constitute a majority of the population
IrelandEnglish (official, the language generally used), Irish (Gaelic or Gaeilge) (official, spoken by approximately 39.8% of the population as of 2016; mainly spoken in areas along Ireland's western coast known as gaeltachtai, which are officially recognized regions where Irish is the predominant language)
Isle of ManEnglish, Manx Gaelic (about 2% of the population has some knowledge)
IsraelHebrew (official), Arabic (special status under Israeli law), English (most commonly used foreign language)
ItalyItalian (official), German (parts of Trentino-Alto Adige region are predominantly German speaking), French (small French-speaking minority in Valle d'Aosta region), Slovene (Slovene-speaking minority in the Trieste-Gorizia area)
Ivory Coast (Cote d Ivoire)French (official), 60 native dialects of which Dioula is the most widely spoken
JamaicaEnglish, English patois
JapanJapanese
JerseyEnglish (official), Jersey Legal French, Portuguese and Polish
JordanArabic (official), English (widely understood among upper and middle classes)
KazakhstanKazakh (official, Qazaq) 83.1% (understand spoken language) and trilingual (Kazakh, Russian, English) 22.3% (2017 est.); Russian (official, used in everyday business, designated the "language of interethnic communication") 94.4% (understand spoken language) (2009 est.)
KenyaEnglish (official), Kiswahili (official), numerous indigenous languages
KiribatiI-Kiribati, English (official)
KuwaitArabic (official), English widely spoken
KyrgyzstanKyrgyz (official) 71.4%, Uzbek 14.4%, Russian (official) 9%, other 5.2% (2009 est.)
LaosLao (official), French, English, various ethnic languages
LatviaLatvian (official) 56.3%, Russian 33.8%, other 0.6% (includes Polish, Ukrainian, and Belarusian), unspecified 9.4% (2011 est.)
LebanonArabic (official), French, English, Armenian
LesothoSesotho (official) (southern Sotho), English (official), Zulu, Xhosa
LiberiaEnglish 20% (official), some 20 ethnic group languages few of which can be written or used in correspondence
LibyaArabic (official), Italian, English (all widely understood in the major cities); Berber (Nafusi, Ghadamis, Suknah, Awjilah, Tamasheq)
LiechtensteinGerman 91.5% (official) (Alemannic is the main dialect), Italian 1.5%, Turkish 1.3%, Portuguese 1.1%, other 4.6% (2015 est.)
LithuaniaLithuanian (official) 82%, Russian 8%, Polish 5.6%, other 0.9%, unspecified 3.5% (2011 est.)
LuxembourgLuxembourgish (official administrative and judicial language and national language (spoken vernacular)) 55.8%, Portuguese 15.7%, French (official administrative, judicial, and legislative language) 12.1%, German (official administrative and judicial language) 3.1%, Italian 2.9%, English 2.1%, other 8.4% (2011 est.)
MacauCantonese 80.1%, Mandarin 5.5%, other Chinese dialects 5.3%, Tagalog 3%, English 2.8%, Portuguese 0.6%, other 2.8% (2016 est.)
MadagascarFrench (official), Malagasy (official), English
MalawiEnglish (official), Chewa (common), Lambya, Lomwe, Ngoni, Nkhonde, Nyakyusa, Nyanja, Sena, Tonga, Tumbuka, Yao
MalaysiaBahasa Malaysia (official), English, Chinese (Cantonese, Mandarin, Hokkien, Hakka, Hainan, Foochow), Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, Panjabi, Thai
MaldivesDhivehi (official, dialect of Sinhala, script derived from Arabic), English (spoken by most government officials)
MaliFrench (official), Bambara 46.3%, Peuhl/Foulfoulbe 9.4%, Dogon 7.2%, Maraka/Soninke 6.4%, Malinke 5.6%, Sonrhai/Djerma 5.6%, Minianka 4.3%, Tamacheq 3.5%, Senoufo 2.6%, Bobo 2.1%, unspecified 0.7%, other 6.3% (2009 est.)
MaltaMaltese (official) 90.1%, English (official) 6%, multilingual 3%, other 0.9% (2005 est.)
Marshall IslandsMarshallese (official) 98.2%, other languages 1.8% (1999 census)
MartiniqueFrench (official)
MauritaniaArabic (official and national), Pular, Soninke, Wolof (all national languages), French
MauritiusCreole 86.5%, Bhojpuri 5.3%, French 4.1%, two languages 1.4%, other 2.6% (includes English, the official language of the National Assembly, which is spoken by less than 1% of the population), unspecified 0.1% (2011 est.)
MayotteFrench is widely spoken, Shimaore, Kibushi
MexicoSpanish only 92.7%, Spanish and indigenous languages 5.7%, indigenous only 0.8%, unspecified 0.8% (2005)
MicronesiaEnglish (official and common language), Chuukese, Kosrean, Pohnpeian, Yapese, Ulithian, Woleaian, Nukuoro, Kapingamarangi
MoldovaMoldovan/Romanian 80.2% (official) (56.7% identify their mother tongue as Moldovan, which is virtually the same as Romanian; 23.5% identify Romanian as their mother tongue), Russian 9.7%, Gagauz 4.2% (a Turkish language), Ukrainian 3.9%, Bulgarian 1.5%, Romani 0.3%, other 0.2% (2014 est.)
MonacoFrench (official), English, Italian, Monegasque
MongoliaMongolian 90% (official) (Khalkha dialect is predominant), Turkic, Russian (1999)
MontenegroSerbian 42.9%, Montenegrin (official) 37%, Bosnian 5.3%, Albanian 5.3%, Serbo-Croat 2%, other 3.5%, unspecified 4% (2011 est.)
MontserratEnglish
MoroccoArabic (official), Berber languages (Tamazight (official), Tachelhit, Tarifit), French (often the language of business, government, and diplomacy)
MozambiqueMakhuwa 26.1%, Portuguese (official) 16.6%, Tsonga 8.6%, Nyanja 8.1, Sena 7.1%, Lomwe 7.1%, Chuwabo 4.7%, Ndau 3.8%, Tswa 3.8%, other Mozambican languages 11.8%, other 0.5%, unspecified 1.8% (2017 est.)
MyanmarBurmese (official)
NamibiaOshiwambo languages 49.7%, Nama/Damara 11%, Kavango languages 10.4%, Afrikaans 9.4% (also a common language), Herero languages 9.2%, Zambezi languages 4.9%, English (official) 2.3%, other African languages 1.5%, other European languages .7%, other 1% (2016 est.)
NauruNauruan 93% (official, a distinct Pacific Island language), English 2% (widely understood, spoken, and used for most government and commercial purposes), other 5% (includes I-Kiribati 2% and Chinese 2%) (2011 est.)
NepalNepali (official) 44.6%, Maithali 11.7%, Bhojpuri 6%, Tharu 5.8%, Tamang 5.1%, Newar 3.2%, Bajjika 3%, Magar 3%, Doteli 3%, Urdu 2.6%, Avadhi 1.9%, Limbu 1.3%, Gurung 1.2%, Baitadeli 1%, other 6.4%, unspecified 0.2% (2011 est.)
NetherlandsDutch (official)
New CaledoniaFrench (official), 33 Melanesian-Polynesian dialects
New ZealandEnglish (de facto official) 95.4%, Maori (de jure official) 4%, Samoan 2.2%, Northern Chinese 2%, Hindi 1.5%, French 1.2%, Yue 1.1%, New Zealand Sign Language (de jure official) .5%, other or not stated 17.2% (2018 est.)
NicaraguaSpanish (official) 95.3%, Miskito 2.2%, Mestizo of the Caribbean coast 2%, other 0.5% (2005 est.)
NigerFrench (official), Hausa, Djerma
NigeriaEnglish (official), Hausa, Yoruba, Igbo (Ibo), Fulani, over 500 additional indigenous languages
NiueNiuean (official) 46% (a Polynesian language closely related to Tongan and Samoan), Niuean and English 32%, English (official) 11%, Niuean and others 5%, other 6% (2011 est.)
Norfolk IslandEnglish (official) 44.9%, Norfolk (also known as Norfuk or Norf'k, which is a mixture of 18th century English and ancient Tahitian) 40.3%, Fijian 1.8%, other 6.8%, unspecified 6.2% (2016 est.)
North KoreaKorean (official)
North MacedoniaMacedonian (official) 66.5%, Albanian (official) 25.1%, Turkish 3.5%, Romani 1.9%, Serbian 1.2%, other (includes Aromanian (Vlach) and Bosnian) 1.8% (2002 est.)
Northern Mariana IslandsPhilippine languages 32.8%, Chamorro (official) 24.1%, English (official) 17%, other Pacific island languages 10.1%, Chinese 6.8%, other Asian languages 7.3%, other 1.9% (2010 est.)
NorwayBokmal Norwegian (official), Nynorsk Norwegian (official), small Sami- and Finnish-speaking minorities
OmanArabic (official), English, Baluchi, Swahili, Urdu, Indian dialects
PakistanPunjabi 48%, Sindhi 12%, Saraiki (a Punjabi variant) 10%, Pashto (alternate name, Pashtu) 8%, Urdu (official) 8%, Balochi 3%, Hindko 2%, Brahui 1%, English (official; lingua franca of Pakistani elite and most government ministries), Burushaski, and other 8%
PalauPalauan (official on most islands) 65.2%, other Micronesian 1.9%, English (official) 19.1%, Filipino 9.9%, Chinese 1.2%, other 2.8% (2015 est.)
PalestineArabic, Hebrew (spoken by many Palestinians), English (widely understood)
PanamaSpanish (official), indigenous languages (including Ngabere (or Guaymi), Buglere, Kuna, Embera, Wounaan, Naso (or Teribe), and Bri Bri), Panamanian English Creole (similar to Jamaican English Creole; a mixture of English and Spanish with elements of Ngabere; also known as Guari Guari and Colon Creole), English, Chinese (Yue and Hakka), Arabic, French Creole, other (Yiddish, Hebrew, Korean, Japanese)
Papua New GuineaTok Pisin (official), English (official), Hiri Motu (official), some 839 indigenous languages spoken (about 12% of the world's total); many languages have fewer than 1,000 speakers
ParaguaySpanish (official) and Guarani (official) 46.3%, only Guarani 34%, only Spanish 15.2%, other (includes Portuguese, German, other indigenous languages) 4.1% , no response .4% (2012 est.)
PeruSpanish (official) 82.9%, Quechua (official) 13.6%, Aymara (official) 1.6%, Ashaninka 0.3%, other native languages (includes a large number of minor Amazonian languages) 0.8%, other (includes foreign languages and sign language) 0.2%, none .1%, unspecified .7% (2017 est.)
Philippinesunspecified Filipino (official; based on Tagalog) and English (official); eight major dialects - Tagalog, Cebuano, Ilocano, Hiligaynon or Ilonggo, Bicol, Waray, Pampango, and Pangasinan
PitcairnEnglish (official), Pitkern (mixture of an 18th century English dialect and a Tahitian dialect)
PolandPolish (official) 98.2%, Silesian 1.4%, other 1.1%, unspecified 1.3% (2011 est.)
PortugalPortuguese (official), Mirandese (official, but locally used)
Puerto RicoSpanish, English
QatarArabic (official), English commonly used as a second language
Reunion
RomaniaRomanian (official) 85.4%, Hungarian 6.3%, Romani 1.2%, other 1%, unspecified 6.1% (2011 est.)
RussiaRussian (official) 85.7%, Tatar 3.2%, Chechen 1%, other 10.1% (2010 est.)
RwandaKinyarwanda (official, universal Bantu vernacular) 93.2%, French (official) <.1, English (official) <.1, Swahili/Kiswahili (official, used in commercial centers) <.1, more than one language, other 6.3%, unspecified 0.3% (2002 est.)
Saint BarthelemyFrench (primary), English
Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaEnglish
Saint Kitts and NevisEnglish (official)
Saint LuciaEnglish (official), French patois
Saint MartinFrench (official), English, Dutch, French Patois, Spanish, Papiamento (dialect of Netherlands Antilles)
Saint Pierre and MiquelonFrench (official)
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesEnglish, Vincentian Creole English, French patois
SamoaSamoan (Polynesian) (official) 91.1%, Somoan/English 6.7%, English (official) 0.5%, other 0.2%, unspecified 1.6% (2006 est.)
San MarinoItalian
Sao Tome and PrincipePortuguese 98.4% (official), Forro 36.2%, Cabo Verdian 8.5%, French 6.8%, Angolar 6.6%, English 4.9%, Lunguie 1%, other (including sign language) 2.4% (2012 est.)
Saudi ArabiaArabic (official)
SenegalFrench (official), Wolof, Pular, Jola, Mandinka, Serer, Soninke
SerbiaSerbian (official) 88.1%, Hungarian 3.4%, Bosnian 1.9%, Romani 1.4%, other 3.4%, undeclared or unknown 1.8% (2011 est.)
SeychellesSeychellois Creole (official) 89.1%, English (official) 5.1%, French (official) 0.7%, other 3.8%, unspecified 1.4% (2010 est.)
Sierra LeoneEnglish (official, regular use limited to literate minority), Mende (principal vernacular in the south), Temne (principal vernacular in the north), Krio (English-based Creole, spoken by the descendants of freed Jamaican slaves who were settled in the Freetown area, a lingua franca and a first language for 10% of the population but understood by 95%)
SingaporeEnglish (official) 36.9%, Mandarin (official) 34.9%, other Chinese dialects (includes Hokkien, Cantonese, Teochew, Hakka) 12.2%, Malay (official) 10.7%, Tamil (official) 3.3%, other 2% (2015 est.)
Sint MaartenEnglish (official) 67.5%, Spanish 12.9%, Creole 8.2%, Dutch (official) 4.2%, Papiamento (a Spanish-Portuguese-Dutch-English dialect) 2.2%, French 1.5%, other 3.5% (2001 est.)
SlovakiaSlovak (official) 78.6%, Hungarian 9.4%, Roma 2.3%, Ruthenian 1%, other or unspecified 8.8% (2011 est.)
SloveniaSlovene (official) 91.1%, Serbo-Croatian 4.5%, other or unspecified 4.4%, Italian (official, only in municipalities where Italian national communities reside), Hungarian (official, only in municipalities where Hungarian national communities reside) (2002 census)
Solomon IslandsMelanesian pidgin (in much of the country is lingua franca), English (official but spoken by only 1%-2% of the population), 120 indigenous languages
SomaliaSomali (official, according to the 2012 Transitional Federal Charter), Arabic (official, according to the 2012 Transitional Federal Charter), Italian, English
South AfricaisiZulu (official) 24.7%, isiXhosa (official) 15.6%, Afrikaans (official) 12.1%, Sepedi (official) 9.8%, Setswana (official) 8.9%, English (official) 8.4%, Sesotho (official) 8%, Xitsonga (official) 4%, siSwati (official) 2.6%, Tshivenda (official) 2.5%, isiNdebele (official) 1.6%, other (includes Khoi, Nama, and San languages) 1.9% (2017 est.)
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
South KoreaKorean, English (widely taught in elementary, junior high, and high school)
South SudanEnglish (official), Arabic (includes Juba and Sudanese variants), regional languages include Dinka, Nuer, Bari, Zande, Shilluk
SpainCastilian Spanish (official nationwide) 74%, Catalan (official in Catalonia, the Balearic Islands, and the Valencian Community (where it is known as Valencian)) 17%, Galician (official in Galicia) 7%, Basque (official in the Basque Country and in the Basque-speaking area of Navarre) 2%, Aranese (official in the northwest corner of Catalonia (Vall d'Aran) along with Catalan, <5,000 speakers)
Sri LankaSinhala (official and national language) 87%, Tamil (official and national language) 28.5%, English 23.8% (2012 est.)
SudanArabic (official), English (official), Nubian, Ta Bedawie, Fur
SurinameDutch (official), English (widely spoken), Sranang Tongo (Surinamese, sometimes called Taki-Taki, is the native language of Creoles and much of the younger population and is lingua franca among others), Caribbean Hindustani (a dialect of Hindi), Javanese
Svalbard and Jan MayenNorwegian, Russian
SwedenSwedish (official)
SwitzerlandGerman (or Swiss German) (official) 62.6%, French (official) 22.9%, Italian (official) 8.2%, English 5.4%, Portuguese 3.7%, Albanian 3.2%, Serbo-Croatian 2.5%, Spanish 2.4%, Romansh (official) 0.5%, other 7.7% (2017 est.)
SyriaArabic (official), Kurdish, Armenian, Aramaic, Circassian, French, English
TaiwanMandarin Chinese (official), Taiwanese (Min Nan), Hakka dialects, approximately 16 indigenous languages
TajikistanTajik (official) 84.4%, Uzbek 11.9%, Kyrgyz .8%, Russian .5%, other 2.4% (2010 est.)
TanzaniaKiswahili or Swahili (official), Kiunguja (name for Swahili in Zanzibar), English (official, primary language of commerce, administration, and higher education), Arabic (widely spoken in Zanzibar), many local languages
ThailandThai (official) only 90.7%, Thai and other languages 6.4%, only other languages 2.9% (includes Malay, Burmese) (2010 est.)
TogoFrench (official, the language of commerce), Ewe and Mina (the two major African languages in the south), Kabye (sometimes spelled Kabiye) and Dagomba (the two major African languages in the north)
TokelauTokelauan 88.1% (a Polynesian language), English 48.6%, Samoan 26.7%, Tuvaluan 11.2%, Kiribati 1.5%, other 2.8%, none 2.8%, unspecified 0.8% (2016 ests.)
TongaTongan and English 76.8%, Tongan, English, and other language 10.6%, Tongan only (official) 8.7%, English only (official) 0.7%, other 1.7%, none 2.2% (2016 est.)
Trinidad and TobagoEnglish (official), Trinidadian Creole English, Tobagonian Creole English, Caribbean Hindustani (a dialect of Hindi), Trinidadian Creole French, Spanish, Chinese
TunisiaArabic (official, one of the languages of commerce), French (commerce), Berber (Tamazight)
TurkeyTurkish (official), Kurdish, other minority languages
TurkmenistanTurkmen (official) 72%, Russian 12%, Uzbek 9%, other 7%
Turks and Caicos IslandsEnglish (official)
TuvaluTuvaluan (official), English (official), Samoan, Kiribati (on the island of Nui)
UgandaEnglish (official language, taught in schools, used in courts of law and by most newspapers and some radio broadcasts), Ganda or Luganda (most widely used of the Niger-Congo languages and the language used most often in the capital), other Niger-Congo languages, Nilo-Saharan languages, Swahili (official), Arabic
UkraineUkrainian (official) 67.5%, Russian (regional language) 29.6%, other (includes small Crimean Tatar-, Moldovan/Romanian-, and Hungarian-speaking minorities) 2.9% (2001 est.)
United Arab EmiratesArabic (official), English, Hindi, Malayam, Urdu, Pashto, Tagalog, Persian
United KingdomEnglish
United StatesEnglish only 78.2%, Spanish 13.4%, Chinese 1.1%, other 7.3% (2017 est.)
United States Minor Outlying IslandsEnglish
United States Virgin IslandsEnglish 71.6%, Spanish or Spanish Creole 17.2%, French or French Creole 8.6%, other 2.5% (2010 est.)
UruguaySpanish (official)
UzbekistanUzbek (official) 74.3%, Russian 14.2%, Tajik 4.4%, other 7.1%
Vanuatulocal languages (more than 100) 63.2%, Bislama (official; creole) 33.7%, English (official) 2%, French (official) 0.6%, other 0.5% (2009 est.)
Vatican City (Holy See)Italian, Latin, French, various other languages
VenezuelaSpanish (official), numerous indigenous dialects
Vietnam Vietnamese (official), English (increasingly favored as a second language), some French, Chinese, and Khmer, mountain area languages (Mon-Khmer and Malayo-Polynesian)
Wallis and FutunaWallisian (indigenous Polynesian language) 58.9%, Futunian 30.1%, French (official) 10.8%, other 0.2% (2003 census)
Western SaharaArabic (official), Spanish
YemenArabic (official)
ZambiaBemba 33.4%, Nyanja 14.7%, Tonga 11.4%, Lozi 5.5%, Chewa 4.5%, Nsenga 2.9%, Tumbuka 2.5%, Lunda (North Western) 1.9%, Kaonde 1.8%, Lala 1.8%, Lamba 1.8%, English (official) 1.7%, Luvale 1.5%, Mambwe 1.3%, Namwanga 1.2%, Lenje 1.1%, Bisa 1%, other 9.7%, unspecified 0.2% (2010 est.)
ZimbabweShona (official; most widely spoken), Ndebele (official, second most widely spoken), English (official; traditionally used for official business), 13 minority languages (official; includes Chewa, Chibarwe, Kalanga, Koisan, Nambya, Ndau, Shangani, sign language, Sotho, Tonga, Tswana, Venda, and Xhosa)